Skip to main content

Bahrain, an exception from the "Arab Spring"?

Weeks ago, my friend Maria informed us on Scoop Empire about the banning from entering Egypt imposed on a renowned Bahrani activist, human rights lawyer and and vice president for the Bahrain Center for Human RightsMaryam al-Khawaja. I then linked this news to Daily News Egypt's article (in September, the country witnessed the first authorised opposition protest since the lastest protest ban) and inevitably started thinking about what I personally like to call the "Bahrani exception".

It all started when protests against the King Hamad bin Eissa al-Khalifa's regime broke out in mid-February 2011 (the main opposition group is thus called 14th February Movement) in the tiny 1 million inhabitants Gulf island of Bahrain (well known as a banking hub and base for the United States Navy’s Fifth Fleet), following the example of their fellow Arab brethren Tunisia and Egypt. The demonstrations were mainly held in the now renowned Pearl Square of Manama (the Pearl Monument was however later tore down by the regime, in an effort to destroy any sign of disruption). In the outset, the regime itself tried to quench the protests but, in the face of growing discontent, the King had to ask for external help. And who did he call? Think about a powerful neighbouring country whose main concern nowadays is the possibility of an "Arab Spring contagion". Yes, you are right, Saudi Arabia headed the Gulf Cooperation Council-backed “Gulf Shield” initiative – the entry of Saudi and Emirati troops into the kingdom on 15 March. Indeed, the International Organization issued a statement confirming "the legitimacy of the entry of Gulf Shield forces into Bahrain based on the joint security agreement" between its members (in this respect, it has to be noted that while the conflict in Syria appeared as a priority on the Arab League's agenda, the crackdown in Bahrain did not. Striking fact? Not really). Since then, dozens of protesters have been killed, scores injured (plus the thousands who have been arrested and even fired from their jobs, and the doctors and nurses who were sentenced because they had treated wounded demonstrators!), and the country has become what can be called a "police state".

Nonetheless, at one point, the King apologized for the deaths and government officials said they were still open to reform. Later on, the Bahraini Government made several attempts to reconciling with its people, above all establishing the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry, chaired by Egyptian human rights lawyer Mahmoud Cherif Bassiouni, to investigate the events of February and March 2011 and their consequences (the final report concluded that security forces used torture and excessive force against detainees arrested in the crackdowns), launching a "Bahrain Debate" (who has now stopped, though) and overhauling the country's Constitution (the amendments would give the elected Parliament greater powers of scrutiny over the government) but the concessions fell short of the opposition’s demands for change. Legislative elections (although under rules established by the Sunni minority) were held in September but boycotted by the opposition. 

As a result of the ongoing dissatisfaction, in February 2012, a huge mass of protesters celebrating the anniversary of the uprising tried to march to the former site of the Pearl monument, but were stopped by security forces firing tear gas and stun grenades. And protests kept on going (one of them recently saw the death of a 17 years old child), until the country recently decided to ban all rallies and demonstrations, justifying the decision by saying that political opposition activists had abused "the government’s tolerance for freedom of expression by allowing protests to turn violent repeatedly".

As I already pointed out talking about Jordan and Kuwait, the opposition does not call for a revolution either, they do not look forward to the overthrow of its royal rulers. It instead calls for political reform, i.e., more power for the Parliament, the possibility of electing a Prime Minister and, above all in this particular case, recognition of the rights of the country's Shiite majority (approximately 70% of the country's population) by the Sunni monarchy, who has marginalized them for decades, leading to an apartheid-like situation. And precisely the latter issue stresses the existence of a much more significant confrontation in the background: the eternal rivalry between Sunni Saudi Arabia and Shia Iran. And underlines the reason why many accuse both Arab and Western countries of double standards (understandably, the protests have recently focused on a new target: the United States, whose administration decided to resume military sales to the country months ago). Some consider Bahrain was the price the U.S. had to pay for their stance towards Mubarak's toppling, that really infuriated Saudi Arabia's rulers. I mean, I can understand Western and Arab authorities' concerns, fearing another violent Shiite-Sunni confrontation, like the ones that now plague both Syria and Iraq (and even Lebanon) but, come on, wasn't their stance towards the "Arab Spring" all about respecting the will of the people?

The five bombs that exploded on 6 November in the country's capital, on what was called by the regime a "terrorist attack"(recalling Syria, anyone?) did not only represent an escalation of the conflict into an even more violent struggle (it is true that civilian casualties are rare in the Kingdom)) but above all underlined the failing of the political reconciliation process. Even though nobody claimed responsibility for the attacks, breakaway groups of the opposition have recently resorted to violent actions (specially targeting the Police). I even read the attacks were planned by the regime to justify the ban on demonstrations and even future eventual crackdowns!

Stalemate drags on and political extremists gain ground. Amnesty International recently underlined the sensitive situation the country is going through, accusing the regime of undertaking an "entrenched spiralling repression", exemplified by the stripping of several opposition activists of their nationality: "the scale and nature of the violations unleashed in Bahrain are making a mockery of the reform process in the country". And, more astonishingly, no senior Bahraini government official has to date been held accountable for the human rights violations taking place last year. Moreover, regional confrontations have added complexity to the conflict: notably, the regime increasingly fears its granting the population more rights could thrust an "Iranian style revolution". And, evidently, international criticism has not extended beyond beyond mere rhetoric (the arms deal with the US is still on, as well as a defence agreement with the UK).


Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Migrating

Aunque el título pueda referirse a uns de las varias mudanzas a los que me conocéis personalmente estáis acostumbrados, se refiere simplemente a este humilde blog, que tantas alegrias me ha dado. A partir de ahora podréis encontrar todos mis artículos en la página https://discoveringmena.blog Although the title could well refer to one of the rushed and unpredictable decisions those amongst you who know me are by now you used to, 'migrating' refers here to the new site this humble blog - which has given me so much joy - is moving to. From now on you can find all of my articles on the page https://discoveringmena.blog

Libros, películas, series y una canción para entender Israel

From Beirut to Jerusalem , Thomas Friedman (2002) Este es un libro de referencia a la hora de conocer Israel para muchas de las personas que he conocido cuando he estado en y/o hablado de Oriente Medio. Aunque teniendo en cuenta  en lo que Thomas Friedman se ha convertido , quizás recomendar uno de sus obras no parezca una introducción prometedora. En él, el periodista/comentarista cuenta en primera persona su paso como corresponsal por dos de las ciudades más simbólicas de la región en una época turbulenta como fueron los 80, desgranando en el caso del Líbano las aristas del conflicto que asolaba por aquel entonces el país, y en el caso de Israel las características y divisiones de la sociedad israelí, no únicamente desde el punto de vista ideológico en relación con el conflicto con Palestina, sino teniendo también en cuenta otros condicionantes clave, como puede ser el origen, la práctica religiosa, o las condiciones socioeconómicas.   Un grupo de israelíes celebran con band

East Jerusalemites need to be a priority in any new strategy for the Israel-Palestinian conflict

U.S. President Donald Trump’s December 6th announcement, in which he recognised Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, shed light on the significance and symbolism of the city. The priority of the MEPP is to maintain the viability of the two-state solution with Jerusalem as the future capital of two states. Any formula acceptable to both sides needs a political solution for Jerusalem and its holy places. Palestinian residents of Jerusalem are however increasingly becoming culturally, economically and socially marginalised amid institutional inertia, political and physical separation from the West Bank, as well as demographic pressures. 2017 has been a year brimming with commemorations related in one way or the other to what has come to be known as the Israel/Palestine conflict. Various events cast light on its most intractable issue: Jerusalem. Back in July, East Jerusalemites reunited and joined forces with Palestinians from the rest of the West Bank as a consequence of the crisis over I